© Klaus Siegemund /
Gravity is the weakest of all the fundamental forces in the known universe. Theoretical physics assumes that before the big bang all the forces were united. As an indication of true unification of the weak interaction with the electromagnetic force. Thus all forces are at correspondingly high energies can be described as a single fundamental. This located to this day in the dark theory that purports to explain this mechanism, commonly referred to as „world formula“.
Gravitation has been described by Einstein in the general theory of relativity. Nevertheless caused mass a curvature of space-time. This distortion of the spatial geometry is the cause that masses follow the curvature what is perceived as gravitation to masses and us human being.
The curvature of space-time deflects light near to large masses. This has been demonstrated watching star light during sun eclipse. It also explains the observation of so-called gravitational lenses in the vastness of the universe that will be generated by a theoretical dark matter. Einstein predicts an existence of gravitational waves before, that would occur as oscillating deformation of space-time with the speed of light through space during a collision of e.g. massive stars
What is missing is the quantum mechanics of gravitation. This is mainly because that gravity is so weak that it experimentally with the current techniques cannot be examined. In theory, it is believed that gravity is transmitted by gravitons, forces supporting particles of gravity, the speed of light. A united theory between quantum mechanics and relativity theory is a dream of modern physics!
But not grateful is that gravity could not be confined within a structure of common theory about them. It could be that a completely new model of thinking has to be designed. In addition I have made a few considerations.
It starts with the speed of light and the properties of black holes. Black holes represent a limit of physical boundaries. They arise when so much mass is compressed to such a small space that light can no longer escape the gravitational field. The physicist speaks in this case of a singularity, because basically coincides mass on the dimension of a point. Singularities are physically impossible to describe because the mathematical result of all describing values regards this condition became infinite. What happens to the originally existing matter of nucleons after creating a black hole today cannot be answered.
Basically a black hole has left the known universe. The space deformation adopted an infinite value after Einstein’s theory of relativity. This raises some questions about the still (in our universe) existing gravity of black holes. Because gravity waves and thus gravitons are limited to the speed of light they should not be able to escape from the black hole like photons are not able to escape too. And – following this assumption – that gravity is transmitted by the interaction of gravitons, these gravitons escape the black hole apparently unhindered, despite quantum mechanics and relativistic no longer expected it. In fact black holes should simply „disappear“ from our space-time continuum.
Another consideration also refers to statements of the theory of relativity. Accordingly, it is irrelevant for an observer if he is in a continuum or accelerated in a gravitational field. So an observer, as he felt the accelerated falling elevator despite gravitational a feeling of weightlessness without gravitational field in the continuous acceleration „gravity“. According to Einstein, these states need not be described differentiated from each other. They are to be equated. This in turn raises new questions, which I will describe here.
The classic forever “Falling Elevator“ in Einstein’s model of thinking is a spaceship in earth orbit. The present there do not feel gravity, weightlessness prevails. This in turn is starkly at odds of quantum physics of gravity. Here gravity is defined by transmitted gravitons on the spacemen and they have to be willy-nilly drawn toward Earth’s center. Accordingly, should the same laws apply to them and they should be pulled with one G towards Earth surface in direction of the spacecraft. The gravitons cannot „know“ that there are astronauts in an accelerated (falling) system. Following the logic this system did not crash down, because it crashes with such a high speed that the horizon just as quickly lowers as it falls.
Now we think of the opposite. A spacecraft is in an area without large mass that could attract it. It moves constantly accelerated with one G. The crew can feel their weight exactly as if they were on the earth. For them, there is the impression of gravity. This condition contradicts quantum physics, because it cannot even gravitons in play that push the spaceman on the ground. Even the Einstein space is not deformed. So how comes gravitation here into existence?
I change the conceptual model again and set our space travelers in the traditional rotating ring on a non-accelerated travel through space. You know the principle from many science fiction movies to build artificial gravity as the ring rotates. Again, you cannot continue with the classical theories of gravitation to explain the gravity our astronauts experienced. – Now I let this ring rotate faster and faster until photons are no longer able to leave towards the center because of the artificial gravity. Thus I create virtually no gravitational effect using mass but on the rotational path a black hole is created. Well, probably there will be no material, which can counteract these centrifugal forces opposed but the thought experiment is allowed.
Those considerations show that we cannot fully describe the phenomenon of gravitation. There will inevitably raise the question of whether using classical gravitational theories, such as the field theory, can be explained as a force analogous to other fundamental forces.
So it is not surprising that all the experiments that want to measure gravitational waves, have so far found nothing. These test arrangements let laser beams in different directions via mirrors wander back and forth with the axes disposed at an angle of 90 degrees. The theory – now runs a gravitational wave through the test setup, so shrinks and stretches it in the space of an axis different from the second. Consequently, it comes at different times the light in both directions and this change can be measured. Mind you, do you measure this length change in a fraction of an atomic diameter, – but nothing has so far been found.
(Note: On Feb. 11th 2016 was officially announced that LIGO, the American gravitational wave detector, have recorded in September 2015 one gravitational wave. Surely I believe that they have something measured, but not that this was a gravitational wave. This message came just after the complicated and expensive upgrade of LIGO to raise its accuracy by a factor of 10. For more than 20 years, scientists are trying to prove gravitational waves and the pressure to succeed is very high. So big that now a result had to be produced?)
Given the following considerations. Suppose that a gravitational wave would distort the space so that the distance between the moon and earth would be halved. Since indeed the whole room would be changed, halving ultimately would apply for anything, up to the distance of the electrons to the nucleus. This change of course no one would notice, since it would expire at the same time and would be relativistic. All standards for observers in the system remained the same. It can be concluded that the speed of light holds an equivalent analogy. For if an observer measured the duration of the light during the complete cycle, the duration of the light moving to the moon will be at any time one second before and during the gravitational wave will cross. In plain language this means that the speed of light must remain in relative terms analogous to space expansion and contraction in the reference system. This in turn would explain why, of course, no gravitational waves can be detected with the appropriate measuring instruments. Because the contracted space, the speed of light is similar to analog, and does not lead to the expected interference in the detector. That means no change in the speed of light by the observer. This measures any time the speed of light, as it should be, because it changes with the reference system, but this change cannot perceive.
The phenomena in relation to let gravity suggest that gravity cannot be explained by the standard model of physics. Perhaps a particular theory of gravity is needed. But it is also conceivable that the Standard Model itself is incomplete and gravitation could be explained in an improved, expanded theory. A candidate for this would be the string theory, although still in its infancy and so far does not provide verifiable results.
According to my thinking, we must insert the nature of space with in promising theories. Einstein was already on the track, when he postulated the curvature of space by mass. The space-time geometry is not static but dynamic. We know further that space is continuously expanding, caused by a force called dark energy.
But what exactly is space? Basically filled space from the space between molecules, atoms and elementary bricks. Is that correct? Suppose we are in a room. The surrounding us space is filled with air and hermetically sealed to the outside. In this space there is a displaceable wall, which holds a 100% tight seal and which closes at the beginning of the experiment on an outer wall. Now, this wall is pushed into the center of the room. On the inside, the air pressure is doubled and is located behind the partition a completely vacuum, high vacuum. The experiment proves, located masse empty space between the air molecules. The same applies to liquids and solids, even if they are not easy to compress. Liquids and solids expand when heated or contract when cooled. Between atoms and molecules is sufficient empty space.
What’s with space between core blocks? We use so likely the terminology that an atom exists essentially of empty space. What about the quarks as in a proton? If a proton is also mostly empty space giving the playground of the tiny quarks? This seems not improbable, because the electromagnetic forces are in neutron star under unimaginable gravitational forces overcome and „pressed“ negatively charged electrons into the positively charged protons. The result is a cosmic object, which appears to consist of only charge neutral neutrons. Nevertheless, the nuclear forces resist this unimaginable object against pressure of gravity. It doesn’t collapse into a black hole that finally is a state of matter that cannot more be described with our todays known physics. A condition probably free from what we call space. Or a fusion of space and matter.
Finally space can only be described by putting it in relation to „non-space“. „Non-space“ are objects that appear to be extremely small so we describe them in theory as points, objects that have quasi zero dimension and a certain mass and energy. Thus, the term space is no longer permitted if absolutely nothing is within it. Space may be defined in duality with matter only. There can be no room, about a universe in which absolutely nothing is, in any case we could not describe „non-space“ with currently known modern physics. Space is detectable because something is inside it. Matter, radiation fields, photons,…… Space must have been created during the Big Bang. From a physically non-writable condition that existed before the big bang, expanded somewhat inexplicable and formed the origin of the universe. Out of this condition dissociation of matter, fundamental forces and so on had happened, – space and time are born. Perhaps the brief state of inflation, which ran through the universe in the development phase, have been caused by construction of room and possibly this mechanism continues to play a role when it comes to the permanent expansion of the universe. In terms of space is not understood whether it is infinitely divisible or there are – let me call them – atoms of space. A space-atom would be the smallest yet meaningful definition of a region which can be distinguished from another. So it would be conceivable that space atoms exist in the order of the Planck length.
If space is existent only by the presence of mass, it is easy to understand that changing masses turn change room.
Physicists agree that a description of the state of the universe before the Big Bang with the known theories is not possible. It is assumed that at this stage all the forces of nature are united. Space and time do not exist. The adoption of a punctual singularity as the initial state of the universe is controversial, since it leads to infinite energy and density that is no longer physically to explain. What is missing is the theory of quantum gravity. One assumes that there must be a density and maximum energy.
The universe has calculated by the astro-physicists an age of about 13.8 billion years. And large parts of the universe may even no longer capture our best telescopes, because the light from these zones is not able to reach us. The vastness of space represents an insurmountable limit. This is connected to the speed of light. Light, or rather, electromagnetic waves and neutrino radiation (theoretically also gravitational waves, but until now undetectable, supra) are the only information that we receive from the expanses of space. Everything that could not reach us from the beginning of existence, because it is limited to the speed of light remains hidden forever. It is, so to speak behind the information horizon.
Electromagnetic radiation, the photons, are force particles of the electromagnetic force, so one of the entire 4 fundamental forces. They are also known as exchange particles. Here, the particle-wave duality of quantum physics applies, where light has both wave and particle characteristics. Radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, light, UV radiation, X-rays or Gramma radiation are all electromagnetic radiation or photons, which differ only by different frequencies or energies. They are the same side of the same coin. High-frequency photons of X-ray and gamma rays have energies higher than, for example, low-frequency photons of microwave radiation.
Negatively charged electrons orbit the positively charged nucleus. Between electron and atomic nucleus a permanent exchange of photons takes place, or in other words is located between the particles a „standing“ electromagnetic wave. Metaphorically speaking burns here always the light. Permanent and in every atom, without this leading to problems with the electricity bill. Because in the atom there is no energy loss. We are now in the field of quantum physics and the rules are different than in our analog experienced reality of the macrocosm. If an atom vibrates someone can see how light penetrates to the outside. For example, in a filament. Electric current in a filament sets electrons in motion which in turn enable the atoms of the thread to vibrate. These vibrations manifest themselves in that the filament becomes hot glowing. The atoms of the filament are in an excited state. It happens that an electron is lifted in orbit around the nucleus at a higher energy level. The energy of exchanging photons increases. One can imagine this, as the filament became bright. Since an electron falls back to his old state, representing a condition with less energy, the recovered energy portion is emitted by the atom as a visible light. The term „portion“ is very appropriate in this process, because the physicists have demonstrated early that the output power can occur not in any possible size, but defined in fixed power steps. The physicist Plank has calculated this energy as it in portions, English „Quantum“, occurs, we now speak of energy quanta. The energy gap of the electron is called a quantum leap and the emitted photon light quantum. A gamma ray is an emitted high energy light-quantum with energy levels of gamma radiation.
Electromagnetic waves travel in a vacuum with the speed of light as already mentioned. Speed of light is a fundamental constant. Speed of light cannot be derived from a physical formula. It also describes the equivalent between mass and energy in the famous formula E = mc², which Albert Einstein has given us. “c” is the light-speed constant. No particle having a rest mass (non accelerated mass) > 0 can reach the speed of light. It is the physical speed limit in the universe. If objects with rest mass continues to accelerate toward the speed of light, so does their mass increase permanently and infinitely large when reaching the speed of light. So you could theoretically bring a single proton as close to the speed of light by using the whole energy of all mass the entire universe has. After accelerating the proton using 100% energy from our universe it would still not move with exact speed of light but only very, very, very close to it. The universe, however, would be gone and our proton, thanks to its now enormous mass, became a black hole travelling near light-speed.
Perhaps were so accelerated nucleons at the beginning of the Big Bang? In particle accelerator at CERN, protons are accelerated so strongly that they can reach the mass of a mosquito. The energy is given as 7 TeV, equivalent to 7 *10^12 eV . If we let these nucleons collide veritable particle showers arise. Imagine two protons would collide with enough high energy, so it could possibly create a universe. Energy would be converted into mass and form of space, time, natural forces and a new world.
What the poor proton can’t manage the photon creates effortless. Because photons have no rest mass. Its motion mass equals to its power it carries in itself ultimately the frequency of the electromagnetic wave. It is wave or a particle, depending on how you look at it more precisely, what you are going to measure on it. Could someone traveling on it he would make an interesting experience. The photon knows itself namely no spatial distance. After Einstein’s theory of relativity, the space for a traveler who approaches the speed of light appears, compressed and rather contracted. At the speed of light space is contracted to the size of zero and in parallel is the clock in a direct comparison with a non-moving observer silent which leads our hypothetical fellow traveler on the photon itself.
So if we look at the starry sky to a 100 million light-years distant galaxy and a photon from this galaxy reaches our retina it happened from the point of view of the photon space- and timeless at the same moment of its creation. Photons do not “feel” anything about space-time. Photons as a representation of energy quants leaving an atom are absorbed immediately from one other atom. We imagine that the space-time continuum is not relevant for quantum physics. This facts could bring us the answer why particles could be entangled about great distances.